Methods to Harness Energy What is Geothermal Energy?
Methods to Harness Energy What is Geothermal Energy?
Geothermal originates by geothermal, which is derived from the Greek word geo (meaning earth) and therein (meaning heat). Convective circulation plays a crucial function in bringing warmth to the surface of the earth’s interior that is hot.
The Earth’s crust is the product of millions active volcanoes, massive amounts of magma and lots of cooling beneath the surface. The constant and extensive volcanism has produced many valuable natural resources across the globe.
Geothermal Power plants energy can be extracted from groundwater heated by large, hot magma bodies. Get Energy from Brantley 1994 Volcanoes in the United States. USGS General Interest Publication.
Deep circulation of groundwater around fracture zones can help bring heat down to shallower levels. This heat can be gathered from a wide area , and then concentrated in close to the surface storage tanks, or released into hot springs. These reservoirs can contain hot water or a stream.
The reservoirs’ hot water or steam can be pumped directly to the surface. The low-energy waste water is frequently reinjected into storage tanks or used to heat the tank for. This technology can be used to produce electricity as well as heat for domestic as well as industrial purposes.
The reliability, economy, sustainability, and the renewable energy of geothermal energy have been proven (World Bank Group, 2004).
There are generally two main types that are available: (1) high temperature resources and (2) moderate/low temperature resources. Geothermal resources with high temperatures that can attain temperature of 220° Celsius or higher They are mostly found in volcanic areas and island chains.
Every continent has moderate-low temperature resources. High temperatures are nearly exclusively for power generation, while the majority of low temperature resources are used to heat direct or for aquaculture and agriculture.
What is the process behind Harnessing Geothermal Energy work?
There are currently three types of geothermal power stations in operation.
Steam plants that directly use geothermal steam. Steam power plants that use dry steam use extreme hot steam (>455 degrees Fahrenheit or >235 degrees Celsius) and extremely little reservoir water. The steam is pumped directly through a pipe and is then sent to a turbine which spins a generator in order to produce electricity. This is the oldest form of geothermal energy station. It was first utilized around 1904 at Lardarello, Italy. Geysers are found in North California are one example of dry steam production (Green Jobs 2002).
Flash Steam Plants use high pressure hot water to produce steam even when pressure is lower. Steam power plant flashes use hot water from the reservoir at a temperature of >360degF or >182degC. The reservoir’s pressure is released when the reservoir is pumped to an electric generator.
A sudden drop in pressure can cause some water to evaporate to steam. This steam spins a turbine which generates electricity. Flash steam power plants and dry steam produce very little carbon dioxide, sulfur oxide, and nitric Ox. But, this is 50 % less than conventional fossil fuel power plants.
Binary Cycle Plants use water at moderate temperatures (225 to 360degFor 107 up to 182degC) from the geothermal reserve. Hot geothermal fluids get heated through moving through one end of the heat exchanger.
In order to generate electricity, the working fluid is usually an organic compound that has a low boiling point like Isobutane or Isopentane. Then it’s vaporized, and then passed through turbines.
The Kalina Cycle also uses an ammonia-water liquid as a working fluid. According to Green Jobs 2002, the Kalina Cycle system increases geothermal plant efficiency as well as reducing the cost of construction. This, according to the makers.
The geothermal energy station as shown on the right is located in the Casa Diablo geothermal field. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.
Geothermal Energy: Applications
- Space/District Heating Schemes – Programs which use geothermal energy to supply more than 80% of Reykjavik’s central heating needs are in use in many other cities across the USA, Poland, and Hungary. The program of using hot water from a failed oil wells in Poland to replace district heating based on coal is supported through the World Bank (World Bank Group 2004).
- Aquaculture and Agriculture Plants, thermal soils, and fish ponds with geothermal activity can increase the growth of fish and plants in moderate temperatures as well as cooler climates. A good example of this can be found in the Oserian farm in Kenya (World Flowers 2005).
- Power Generation Geothermal power generation has a capability of more than 8000 MW and is an established technology. It is especially well-known in islands or countries which rely heavily on imported fossil fuels (World Bank Group 2004,).
Geothermal Energy Costs
The cost of geothermal energy generated can be as low as 4.5-7 cents/hour. Although this is similar to some fossil fuel facilities however, it should be noted that geothermal electricity generation has significant reductions in air pollution.
The size of the project, its quality, cost of financing, as well as ownership all influence the cost of delivery.
Geothermal energy plants need a lot of capital, but they also have low variable costs and minimal cost of fuel.
The financing structure is generally designed so that the capital expenses of the project will be to be paid back in 15 years. It delivers power at 5-10C/kWh.
The costs of operating the facility for the next 15-30 years are covered by maintenance and operations.
Geothermal Energy can also bring other advantages
- The air pollution could be lessen Geothermal fields currently emit around one-sixth the amount of CO2 as an electricity-generating gas power station, and emit neither nitrogen (NOx) or sulphur (SOx).
The latest state-of-the-art combination cycle as well as geothermal binary plants emit almost no air pollution. Every 1,000 MW of geothermal power will help offset around 1.9 millions of pounds toxic pollutant air pollutants that is a threat to Western skies.
It also will offset around 8 trillion pounds climate-changing CO2 emissions per year generated by gas-fired power plants and much more from coal-fired power plants.
- Energy sources that are renewable: all types of geothermal heat are renewable in the event that the heat exchangers that are extracted from the earth do not higher than the amount of heat that is absorbed from the reservoir. After it is completely depleted, a geothermal reservoir that is used to generate electricity can be a long time to replenish.
Recovering a district heating system reservoir could take anywhere from 100 to 200 years. Recovery of the geothermal heat pump reservoir could take up to 30 years.
- Reduce dependence on electricity imported Geothermal energy is produced locally, which decreases trade deficits. Trade deficits can be reduced to preserve wealth within the country and promote healthier economies. If oil imported from abroad was substituted by domestic resources, nearly half of each year’s U.S. trade deficit could be eliminated (Green Jobs 2004).
Geothermal energy is a proven wave energy source that has been in use for over 100 years. But, it’s only now that we understand it has geothermal energy potential to complement and replace our existing renewable energy generated sources.
The United States has the majority of geothermal energy resources within the western region, which includes California and California. Geothermal energy is reliable cheap, clean, and safe however, its limited usage appears to be its main flaw. Geothermal energy represents only a fraction of the solar power that is dispersed across the earth’s surface when compared with other options such as solar. It has room for improvement.
While geothermal energy units can be developed, their techniques and technologies have remained virtually inactive. We must also think about the benefits alternatives to fossil fuels while we look for them.
Five methods to tap into the original source of renewable energy Human power
Wind-up phone charger
Mobile phone users who have a habit of staying connected should not get too far from the power source, or fear their battery draining. The “Reactor” iPhone case is equipped with an ultra-thin generator. It lets you manually charge your battery by turning the handle that’s attached to the back of its. Although this method of power generation might not be new however, it does shed light on the possibility that human-power could be used to provide the power needed for emergencies and is accessible when required.
The design of a product powered by humans isn’t an easy task since it requires less effort to produce power. Gravity Light solves this problem by using the power of gravity. To lift the sandbag’s weight all it takes is one shot of power. The weight gradually drops to spin a spur gear mechanism that power the LED for 20 minutes.
Parasitic harvesting is the process of generating wind power from regular activities such as walking. The nPowerPEG is a tube-shaped handheld device that can be clipped onto your backpack or belt. It generates electricity through movement with a spring, magnet or inductive coil. Although it doesn’t generate enough power to power high-wattage electronic devices like laptops and tablets it does have excellent power efficiency as well as battery tech.
Flywheel kitchen gadgets
Modern devices powered by humans do not solely rely on the generation of electricity. Christoph Thetard’s flywheel drive RB2B powers the kitchen with a variety of appliances. The flywheel can spin at up to 10,000 RPM using an engineered transmission and a mechanical power of 350 W. The energy generated by the wave is able to run several attachments such as knives, slicing disks and whisk. While it’s unclear what the practicality of this gadget is, the designer deserves credit for creating a concept that challenges conventional notions that devices powered by humans have to be portable and powered by batteries.