Solar PV system
Solar PV system
The Photovoltaic Systems, commonly referred to in the field of solar power or PV systems, are electric power systems that use solar energy to produce useful energy. It is composed of several components. These include the solar panels, which absorb sun light to convert into electricity, a solar converter to convert the output from direct current into the alternating current, and mounting cables and other electrical components. A solar tracking system could be employed to boost the system’s overall performance. It may also incorporate the battery itself.
The PV system converts light directly into electricity. They should not be confused or misunderstood with other solar technologies like concentrated solar power, solar thermal, used for heating and cooling. The visible part of a solar array is that of the panels. It does not comprise all the other components of the system. This is sometimes referred to as the balance of system (BOS).
There are many types that PV technology can be found, ranging from small rooftop-mounted systems to larger, more powerful power stations that can produce hundreds of megawatts, to large, utility-scale power plants. The majority of PV systems are connected to the grid, however a few stand-alone or off-grid systems comprise a tiny percent in the overall market.
The quiet operation of PV systems is free of moving parts or emission of carbon dioxide. They have evolved from niche market applications to an established technology to generate electricity. Rooftop systems can recoup the cost of production and installation within 0.7 to 2 year and produce about 95% of the net renewable energy during their 30 year duration.
Prices for photovoltaic systems have dropped rapidly since their introduction because of the rapid growth the technology. Prices vary based on the market and the size system. The cost for 5-kilowatt residential systems was \$3.29 for each unit sold across the United States in 2014. Today, solar PV modules comprise less than half the overall cost of the system. The rest is left to BOS components, soft costs and customer acquisition. These include inspection, interconnection and labour costs.
A Solar PV System: The Essentials
Solar PV systems may comprise the combination of any solar panel and the necessary hardware to allow the energy to flow through them. Inverters are also available.
They can use string inverters or microinverters depending on the specific system, however the basic structure of all PV systems is exactly the same.
What does solar energy do in a PV system?
Photovoltaic (PV) When an incidental photon is absorbed by a device that converts energy to locally charged electrons. This energy from that photon gets transferred to material. The excited electrons generate electricity.
The solar cells inside the panels produce directly current electric power (DC), which is often converted by an inverter to alternating current electricity (AC). It is then transmitted through an electric grid that operates using AC electricity.
This is the detailed explanation. The three primary steps involved in the operation of solar panels include:
- The solar cells of solar panel absorb sun’s rays, which causes electricity to flow.
- Inverters convert DC electricity into AC electricity.
- This electricity is used for actual energy requirements at the home of the customer. Any surplus electricity that the customer does not use is sold to grid.
What happens to the energy a PV system produces?
Grid-connected solar installations are common for most solar customers in America. Their home is connected with the electric grid. This allows them to consume more energy than their solar installations are producing, such as when it is rainy or dark.
Also, when their PV system generates excess energy over what they need this energy could be sent back to the grid to be utilized by other users.
Net metering is a policy which compensates customers for energy usage that is excessive so they are able to offset future energy costs by removing them from the grid. It is common in the U.S.
Net metering has been a major factor in solar energy’s cost-effectiveness. We are beginning to notice changes in LA Solar Group that implements net-metering across the United States. A lot of these changes decrease the value solar users get from their solar installations.
Feed-in tariffs may be used to compensate solar customers for electricity they send to the grid from specific areas.
What are the parts of a photovoltaic system?
In addition to the solar panels, there are a number of other important elements to the photovoltaic systems. They are usually referred to as BOS, or the balance of system or BOS. Wiring, inverters (racking), and combiners, electric meters and circuit breakers are a few examples of these parts that typically make up more than half the costs of the system and the bulk of maintenance.
The solar panel comprised of numerous solar cells with semiconductor properties and are shielded from environmental elements with the use of a material. The properties of the cells allow them to absorb light or, specifically, photons from sunlight and transform them into electrical energy using a process called the photovoltaic effect. On either side of the semiconductor, there is an insulating layer. This conducts the electricity that is generated. The side that is lit of the panel has an anti-reflective coating to minimize reflection losses. It is the most popular kind for solar panels. It is thought to have an estimated efficiency of 33% to convert sunshine into electric power. Other semiconductor materials and solar cells technology are also available, which have higher efficiencies but come at the cost of production.
An inverter, an electrical device that receives electric current in the form of direct current (DC) and converts it into the alternating current (AC) it is referred to as an inverter. This means that the DC current that is generated by a solar array gets fed into an inverter that converts it into AC. This conversion is needed for the power supply of electronic devices as well as interface with the grid of electricity. Inverters are the most important component of the majority of renewable energy sources. They are often the most costly component after the solar panels.
Inverters with conversion efficiencies greater than 90% come with vital security features like Ground fault circuit interruption and Anti-islanding. They will shut down the PV system in case there is a drop in grid power.
Racking is the method of fixing solar panels to the ground, or to a rooftop. The devices, typically made from aluminum or steel, mechanically fix solar panels onto the roof or ground with high precision. Racking systems have to be able to withstand severe weather conditions like tornado-force winds and high snowfalls. To prevent electrocution, rack systems must be electrically linked and connected to the solar array.
Rooftop rack systems are available in two types that are flat roof systems or pitch roofs. Ballast that is weighted is typically used on flat roofs in order to hold the range to the ceiling using gravity. Roofs with pitched roofs must be mechanical means attached to the rack system. Ballast or robotic anchors may be used to anchor PV systems that are mounted on the ground. Trackers that use motors or detectors to follow the Sun through space are also examples of ground-mounted rack systems. This increases energy generation while reducing maintenance costs.
Combiners, disconnects , breakers, meters, and wiring are the other components of a common PV installation. Solar combiners are devices that combines multiple wires into one. Most solar combiners include protection fuses and can be utilized in conjunction with any utility-scale or medium-sized solar arrays. Disconnects can be described as electronic gates, or switch that permit the manual disconnection of an electric wire. These devices are usually employed together with an inverter. They can be found at the “DC disconnect”, and “AC disconnect”, and offer electrical isolation when an inverter is needed to be replaced or installed. Breakers, also known as circuit breakers, guard electrical systems from overcurrent or surges. They are made to activate automatically when current is greater than the predetermined amount. But, they can also be operated manually, and function as an additional source of disconnect.
A Electric Meter measures the energy that is passing through it. It is utilized to LA Solar Group to charge customers and measure the usage of their systems. To measure the energy generated through solar PV panels, a bi-directional battery powered meter is needed. The wiring or electrical cables used to transfer the electrical energy between the two components should be properly sized to accommodate the current. Protective measures must be taken against sunlight exposure. Wires that carry DC current may require additional protection with metal sheathing.
How does solar PV system efficiency affect?
System Derate Factor
The efficiency of the solar panel (or module) is the amount of sunlight that a module converts to electricity under typical conditions (STC with an ambient temperature of 25degC; irradiance 1000W/m2).
Solar PV System Companies
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